T. Neubert, N. Østgaard, V. Reglero, O. Chanrion, M. Heumesser, K. Dimitriadou, F. Christiansen, C. Budtz-Jørgensen, et al.
A terrestrial gamma-ray flash and ionospheric ultraviolet emissions powered by lightning (Journal)
Science, 367(6474), 183-186, January, 2020
Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) are transient gamma-ray emissions from thunderstorms, generated by electrons accelerated to relativistic energies in electric fields. Elves are ultraviolet and optical emissions excited in the lower ionosphere by electromagnetic waves radiated from lightning current pulses. We observe a TGF and an associated Elve using the Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor on the International Space Station. The TGF occurs at the onset of a lightning current pulse that generates an Elve, in the early stage of a lightning flash. Our measurements suggest that the current onset is fast and has a high amplitude, a prerequisite for Elves, and that the TGF is generated in the electric fields associated with the lightning leader.
asim tgf elve ultraviolet ionosphere emp lightning leader journal


  author = "T. Neubert and N. Østgaard and V. Reglero and O. Chanrion and M. Heumesser and K. Dimitriadou and F. Christiansen and C. Budtz-Jørgensen and I. Kuvvetli and I. L. Rasmussen and A. Mezentsev and M. Marisaldi and K. Ullaland and G. Genov and S. Yang and P. Kochkin and J. Navarro-Gonzalez and P. H. Connell and C. J. Eyles",
  title = "A terrestrial gamma-ray flash and ionospheric ultraviolet emissions powered by lightning",
  year = 2020,
  journal = "Science",
  publisher = "AAAS",
  volume = 367,
  institution = "AAAS",
  number = 6474,
  pages = "183-186",
  month = "Jan",
  keywords = "asim, tgf, elve, ultraviolet, ionosphere, emp, lightning leader, journal",
  doi = "10.1126/science.aax3872",
  url = ""